Click links in text for more info. WARNING: Explicit words used in this post! No one under the age of 18 should continue! My first time in the reference section of the research library at UCLA I came across the complete, multi-volume Oxford English Dictionary (OED. Impressed by the footage of verbiage, I took the opportunity to seek words I could never find before, such as antidisestablishmentarianism. Boring! So then I decided to look up the mother of all forbidden words - fuck. As I leafed through the F volume, I noticed the pages were worn, as a matter of fact. I was very disappointed when I came across the entry, as not much was said. The look on my face must have been perplexed, because a reference librarian came by, saw me, and came over to offer assistance. I unabashedly showed her the word I was looking up, and pointed out how worn the pages were. Giggling, she looked at the volume and the entry. She, too, was disappointed. Not having any other suggestions as to where to look for any etymological information on the word, she asked if this was an assignment. No, just personal interest I said, whereupon we both chuckled. The word is unique in that it can be used in one form or another as an adjective, adverb, command, interjection, noun, or verb. It is considered obscene in social contexts but is common in informal and domestic circumstances. A 2000 study in Great Britain yielded that it was the third most profane word, the number one spot going to cunt, and in second place was motherfucker. It remains taboo in English-speaking countries, but is not so censored in non-English-speaking countries where it is, however, recognized as vulgar. The Canadian Press considers it commonplace and has added the usage to the Canadian Press Caps and Spelling Guide. One reason it is hard to trace the etymology of the word is because it was taboo. When the OED's F volume was originally compiled in 1893-1897, the editors omitted it, but did include it in the 2nd edition. It cites the word fukkit used in 1503, with the earliest instance of the current spelling in 1535: Bischops may fuck thair fill and be vnmaryit. bishops may fuck their fill and be unmarried) from Sir David Lyndesay's Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaits. It is presumed to be a much older word, but not the kind that was written in the type of texts that have survived in Old English and Middle English. The word is hinted at in a 15th century poem "Flen flyys" from the opening line "Flen, flyys, and freris. Fleas, flies, and friars" written in Middle English and bastard Latin. The questionable lines reads: Non sunt in coeli, quia gxddbov xxkxzt pg ifmk. This was a substitution cypher that requires replacing each letter with the next letter in alphabetical order: non sunt in coeli, quia fvccant vyivys of heli" which translates, they are not in heaven because they fuck the wives of Ely. This poem satirized Carmelite friars of Cambridge, so was most likely coded because of the accusation of misconduct. "Fvccant" with a "v" for "u" was from a common device used in Middle English which approximated Latin when a Latin word was unknown. Cognates of the word include ficken /German, fokken /Dutch, fukka /Norwegian, and fokka /dialectal Swedish. Thus it may come from the Indo-European root meaning to strike. It could also be from Old High German pfluog, meaning "to plow, as a field. (This brings to mind a Spinal Tap song. Sex Farm" for all you Tapheads. There are rumors that it is an acronym, but most sources deny both this and another rumor stating it came from plucking a bow made of yew. The word goes back much farther than the circumstances in these rumors. The word was outlawed in print by the Obscene Publications Act in 1857 in Great Britain, and by the Comstock Act in 1873 in the United States. It may have been banned in print, but it thrived in conversation. It is part of military acronyms from WWII - SNAFU and FUBAR. WTF is a recent coinage, widely used on the internet, and it counts as a meme. In 1971, nearly 100 years after its usage was outlawed, the U. S. Supreme Court decided in Cohen V. California, 403 U. 15, that the public display of the word is protected under the 1st and 14th amendments and cannot be made a criminal offense. Paul Robert Cohen had been convicted in 1968 of disturbing the peace for wearing a jacket with the words "Fuck the Draft" on it, in reference to Vietnam. In 2009, the European Union's OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, the trademarks and designs registry) disallowed a German brewery to market a beer called "Fucking Hell. The brewery sued, claiming the beer was named after an Austrian village called Fucking, and "Hell" is the German word for light, and it is a light beer. On March 26, 2010, they received permission to market the beer. The Catcher in the Rye was published in the U. in 1951 and featured the word. It was number 13 on the ALA's most banned books from 1990-2000. Norman Mailer's publishers persuaded him to substitute the word "fug" in his book The Naked and the Dead in 1948. The musical group The Fugs named themselves after his euphemism. Tallulah Bank head's PR guy famously quipped, So you're the young man who can't spell fuck. The word is now so commonplace in mainstream movies from the U. that it almost goes unnoticed. This becomes problematic when the movies appear on television. The line from "Diehard. Yippee-ki-yay, motherfucker" became "Yippee-ki-yay, Mister Falcon. John Goodman's character in "The Big Lebowski" has a popular line that he says repeatedly, This is what happens when you fuck a stranger in the ass. On TV he says, This is what happens when you find a stranger in the Alps. Most people think of classical Greece and Rome as civilized, erudite, polished and tasteful. Not so! The middle finger gesture, and its meaning, was used in ancient Greek comedy to insult someone, although some would argue it was a method of diverting the threat of the evil eye. (My Greek grandmother used to aim her hand with all fingers out and slightly curled to curse, saying the word "Nah. The Romans adopted the gesture we know as the finger, or flipping the bird, calling it the digitus impudicus or digitus infamis. So, the notion and the word fuck have an ancient pedigree. Interesting that it is still considered one of the worst words. There are far worse words to my mind - racist, bigot, pedophile - that are perhaps less crude but certainly more foul.
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The world appears to have divided itself into two camps and I find myself in neither' journalist and writer W Steven Gilbert shares his thoughts. read more] The Politics of the Psyche BBC 4s Saturday night primetime slot is cornering the market in excellent European drama but we dont need Denmark to point out how impotent we feel. However idealistic were its ancient Roman origins, the UKs version of representative democracy has become as distorted as a burning pillar of wax, says outRageous. read more] A manager's dog ‘I am his Highness dog at Kew; Pray, tell me sir, whose dog are you? ( Alexander Pope, Epigram Engraved on the Collar of a Dog which I gave to his Royal Highness. read more] The Blockbusters Uri Avnery shows how the differences that exist between the different cultural blocs in Israeli society are a barrier to peace. read more] Why Miliband and Balls have got it wrong The capitulation by Labour to the austerity and cuts agenda of the Tories and the right-wing press has been confirmed by shadow chancellor Ed Balls' statement that Labour would not be able to reverse the Tory cuts and would maintain the pay freeze within the public sector if they come to power at the next election, says John Wight. read more] New beginnings John Green asks whether we need a mass party to represent the unions and the left and to advance the interests of the entire working class (Part 2. read more] Shukran, Israel If Islamist movements come to power all over the region, they should express their debt of gratitude to their bête noire, Israel, states Uri Avnery. read more] A Ghost Story Retailed W Stephen Gilbert delivers an up-to-date, state and fate of the retail trade in Britain, it is partly warmingly, personal and anecdotal, and partly a critical overview: part one. read more] Light and fluid warriors In the second of her interviews using the 'Lego Serious Play' method, Patrizia Bertini meets Ollie, a young occupier at the OccupyLSX camp. read more] Letter to a Soldier of the IDF John Wight writes a letter in commemoration of the third anniversary of Operation Cast Lead, Israel's military assault on Gaza, it is written in the form of a letter to an IDF soldier. read more] The Struggle Continues Despite David Cameron's attempt to brush the November 30th strike under the carpet and continue with his attacks on the poorest, John Wight predicts that strong resistance to the cuts will continue. read more] Bewildering Times! From student fees to taxes, the Liberal Democrats are increasingly being seen as cheerleaders for hard-line Tory policies, writes Chris Mason-Felsing. read more] An Interview with Yvonne Ridley Tomasz Pierscionek talks to award winning journalist Yvonne Ridley about her capture by the Taliban in 2001 and subsequent conversion to Islam, as well as her views on the recent rise in Islamophobia and political opposition towards the veil. read more] Whither Iran? In the wake of the demostrations of 11th February, which saw hard-liners and pro-democracy campaigners alike take to the streets of Tehran, Maziar Razi assesses the balance of forces in Iranian politics. read more] The Kangaroo A year into his presidency, Barack Obama has achieved relatively little in the foreign policy sphere. Uri Avnery urges him to keep trying. read more] Tony Blair's Legacy War criminal Tony Blair missed out on the EU presidency last week. Tomasz Pierscionek looks back on how the Blair years destroyed the credibility of the Labour party. read more] Drones and Democracy in Afghanistan As Afghanistan goes to the polls amid a flurry of rhetoric about democratising the Middle East, Ramzy Baroud considers the democratic credentials of a US-led military campaign characterised by large-scale bombings and summary executions. read more] Blue Desert George Monbiot asks: Why is no one brave enough to stand up to the fishing industry. read more] Remembering the Indonesian Killings The Indonesian massacres of 1965-66 rank among the biggest mass murders of the 20th Century. Looking back on this tragic episode, Nathaniel Mehr asked Noam Chomsky for his observations on the significance of US and British support for the massacre. read more] Twenty-Five Years On John Haylett looks back on the struggle which defined the politics of a decade and paved the way for the rise of New Labour. read more] We Must Fight to Keep the Post Public With both mainstream political parties apparently united in their determination to privatise the UK postal system, Mick Brooks makes the case for resisting so-called "part-privatisation. read more] The Great Depression Michael Roberts argues that the big "bailouts" of financial institutions have exposed the fallacy behind the "free market" ideologies which have dominated British and American political and economic systems for the past thirty years. read more] One Shot Left George Monbiot on how the Bush administration, in its final death throes, is stepping up its war on the environment. read more] Protect and Survive George Monbiot on how Peter Mandelson is bullying the worlds poorest nations into following a development route that cant work. read more] Manufactured Famine George Monbiot on the European trade initiatives which are likely to exacerbate existing food shortages in the developing world. read more] Losing the Will to Serve With below-inflation pay rises and increased targets, no wonder Labour has lost the votes of the public sector workers who keep this country going. read more] Yes He Can New York poet Erica Cardwell wants American voters to be brave and choose Obama. read more] Pro-Death George Monbiot considers the implications of attempts to reverse progress on abortion. read more.
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به شبکه ایرانیان خوش امدید - با هم و برای هم برای فردای بهتر- پاینده ایران و ایرانی پاینده کشور پادشاهی مشروطه ایران در این خاک زر خیز ایران زمین, نبودند جز مردمی پاک دین, همه دینشان مردی و داد بود, وزآن کشور آزاد و آباد بود سال ۱۳۹۷ شمسی برابر با ۱۴۰۹۷ اهورایی برابر با ۷۰۴۰ میترایی برابر با ۳۷۵۶ زرتشتی برابر با ۲۵۷۷ هخامنشی بر شما خجسته باد.
Football, as the clichés go, is a controversial thing – a game of two halves no less – and the subject of the brilliant Jafar Panahi's new film, Offside. Inspired by the occasion when his own daughter was refused entry to a football stadium, Offside" isn't really about football, but rather what happens when a group of six girls try to sneak into that sacred space – the stadium where the Iran-Bahrain World Cup qualifying match is taking place. According to a law "passed" after the 1979 Islamic revolution, women are forbidden from watching live football matches, a decision which Ahmadinejad wished to repeal but was overruled by the ulema. The girls are caught, and though excluded from the game, they are not allowed to go home. So while Iran's most important match in years unfolds within earshot but out of view, they are put in the custody of three young, bewildered but traditional-minded army conscripts. United by their patriotism and obsessive desire for Iran to win, but divided by their views on the proper place for women, the characters in "Offside" represent a society that is in the process of tumultuous and unregulated change. The film, shot like a documentary and using non-professional actors, is just under 90-minutes long and structured in a similar manner to a match. Full of small, comic incidents and surprising moments, the audience suffers the same agony as the characters: will Iran qualify for the world cup? But of course much more is at stake, and with a dull undercurrent of fear, you wonder, what punishment does "the Chief" have in store for the captured girls? How did you go about making the film inside Iran? An article in Time says you submitted a phoney synopsis to the authorities who later found out they were duped. I felt as I was watching the film that something awful was going to happen (I was at points reminded of Siddiq Barmak's "Osama. Did you and your crew feel that too when you were working? Did you expect the police to pounce at any minute? Jafar Panahi: Many things in Iran always have certain problems. For each film that we make we have to think of creative ways of doing it. In Farsi we have a saying: if you can't get through the door then climb up through the window. So this is what we have to do to find a way of achieving our aims. For each film this method can only be used once, and for the next one obviously we have to find an alternative way of doing it. We gave a script to the authorities and it was slightly different – we said that it was just about some boys who go to a football match. Once they approved that film, we went about making this film. We didn't have any problems with the police but the Ministry of Guidance – the organisation which approves film releases – told us that it would not give us a license because it was not happy with my previous films. It said that I must amend them according to its wishes, and only then would it give me a license to release this film – and it said that this would take at least a year. Well, time was passing and I wanted to have the film out before the World Cup, so we just went ahead and produced the film. Are men in Iran generally sympathetic to the women's interest in attending matches or do they mostly feel that stadiums are a masculine preserve? Panahi: Before the revolution women were allowed to attend football matches, the same as men, and the current restrictions came only after the revolution in 1979. Because of this kind of ideology, the mentality of the people has changed, and so it is this "official" mentality which is causing all the problems. But in my opinion, the majority of men do not have a problem with women attending matches. But since women were banned from attending, the whole atmosphere of the matches become very male and chauvinistic and rude, and it has by now developed its own momentum. How often do girls and women actually get into legal trouble for sneaking into matches, as opposed to being turned away and sent home? Panahi: The same thing happens to women who don't observe the hijab properly, it is what you call "bad hijab" when they show some of their hair. The vice squad are sent to deal with them. The women are fined, or they are sometimes detained and imprisoned, or their families are sent for and they have to guarantee that they will not behave like this again. So this is how it is done. But again, it is all about the way that the authorities interpret the laws. Can you expand on the idea of the murkiness of the women and football issue: what's really banned, who does the banning? And can you comment on the interpretation of the law on various levels – civil and religious authorities, soldiers / police? Panahi: Of course when you try to restrict something or implement a restriction it has to be based on some sort of law. But there is nothing in the law which has been approved by the Iranian parliament or anybody else which bans women from taking part. It has become a kind of unwritten law. The policemen and the soldiers too, have to follow this unwritten law and unwritten rules, and they are answerable to their superiors for it. Stylistically, the film is very much like a documentary. You use non-professional actors and events unfold in real time – there is even a half-time toilet break! Panahi: Yes, all the actors are non-professionals. The film is constructed like a documentary in which I have inserted fictional characters. Are we in a documentary, or is this fiction? I wanted the action to reflect this ambiguity. We tried to preserve a unity of time, so with each second that passes, I want the audience to feel that they are watching a real event unfold. The places are real, the event is real, and so are the characters and the extras. This is why I purposefully chose not to use professional actors, as their presence would have introduced a notion of falseness. Where did you find the actors? Were the girls in reality football fans who were sympathetic to the storyline? Panahi: When I write a script I look around for people who can do the job best. For example, the soldier I found in Tabriz, in the north-west of Iran. For the girls, they were mainly university students – and I found them through friends and colleagues and my contacts at universities. As far as their interest in football, yes, they are genuinely interested and passionate about football. They wanted to go to the matches. Fortunately in Iran the actors or actresses do not get into trouble. The main problem is for the producers and directors. Of course I've got into trouble in the past so I don't mind so much – and I'm used to it, but as far as the actors are concerned there was no danger to them. The film is very funny, and at times almost farcical. How important is humour to you in telling the story? Panahi: I believe that it is the greatest insult to women that they have to deny their identity as women and have to dress as men to take part in society. So yes, there is humour, but it is bitter humour. You may laugh at it, but nevertheless you feel very sad that women have to deny their femininity to take part in a function where men can take part. In the film I have deliberately included a female character who wears the chador. By that I want to show that it is not only people who are not religious and outside this group that have problems, but that even a religious person – who is prepared to wear the hijab – is restricted and not allowed to take part. The authorities are being unfair to the religious people as well as the non-religious people – both simply want to watch a game, or take part in male functions, and both are being marginalised and deprived. Restrictions are imposed throughout different strata and classes of people. My aim in bringing together people from different classes and religious backgrounds is to show that everybody is subject to these sorts of restrictions and laws. The reason given by people who say women should not go to these matches is the rowdy language, the curses and the swearing; they feel that ladies should not be exposed to that behaviour. But another point made by the ulema recently (in connection with the latest rulings) is that it is not correct for women to go there and see men with bare arms and legs. So even if they don't derive any enjoyment from it the very fact of seeing men in that position is considered to be bad. This adds a further argument for exclusion of women. The element of masquerade and disguise is very important in Offside and also in films such as Marmoulak (The Lizard. Is this inherent ingenuity what scares the authorities so much? Panahi: This element of masquerade is a general characteristic of all the films made in Iran. They have different layers of meaning and messages. This is what annoys the authorities – and the same thing is true for television, which in Iran is wholly state-owned. So it's not just that the authorities don't like the message, they don't even want to have the questions raised in the first place. The very raising of the issue of women and their status in society and their desire to go to a football match – this is something which challenges the authorities, and they don't have the sufficient strength of character or tolerance to handle it. The Iranian regime is a religious regime and there are many religious controls but these ideas are limited to those who are in power and how they interpret religion. Even among the clerics there are some very enlightened people who do not believe in these sorts of exclusions, but unfortunately they are outside the sphere of power and although they want to open up, those who are inside have a much more narrow reading of religious ideas and that is what causes the problem. We are not trying to fight against anybody or challenge anybody with our films. All we want to do is raise a social issue. We want to tell those in government that there is this problem so at least they can think more deeply about it. We want to persuade them that there are more rational ways of tackling and dealing with these problems than sheer restriction or ignoring them. Patriotism, duty and honour are major themes and it was interesting that you explored this through the younger generation. Panahi: This is a good question and an important point. When you are talking about nationalism and patriotism we have to realise that this is not about chauvinism or the superiority of once race or country. Ever since the revolutionary regime came to power it has fought against some inherited national traditions like nowruz (new year festival. People in Iran want to return to their national identity. They want to say that they have a long history and that there are many points of pride in that long history. They want to reclaim their traditions and to say that we are a cultured people, and we can live together under those shared cultural values. Interview conducted by Maryam Maruf openDemocracy 2006 Jafar Panahi's "Offside" Protected from the Profanities of the Bellowing Fans The Iranian film "Offside" is about a group of girl soccer fans who smuggle themselves into Tehran's Azadi Stadium, despite the ban on women spectators. Ariana Mirza presents Offside and its director Jafar Panahi Interview with Siddiq Barmak An Afghan View of Suffering "Osama" is the first full-length film to emerge from Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban regime. It is an attempt to come to terms with the country's history – and it already won a Golden Globe Award. Amin Farzanefar spoke with the film's director, Siddiq Barmak Interview Rose Issa "I Don't Believe in 'Jihad vs. McWorld' Rose Issa, a curator who lives in London, has made a name for herself in the past twenty years as a specialist on the fine arts and film of the Middle East and North Africa. Fahimeh Farsaie spoke with her.